Brahmagupta
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Brahmagupta was born in 598 A.D. He lived in Bhillamala in the empire of Harsha which is now known as Bhinmal in Rajasthan. Brahmagupta was educated in the Ujjain school in India. He is often referred to as the Bhillamalacarya, or the teacher from Bhillamala.

Brahmagupta wrote "Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta" at the age of 30, which was a work on astronomy. Some chapters deal with pure math, and one is about geometry, arithmetic, and progressions. It is the oldest known work where the number zero is used in mathematical equations. It is in this work that he creates the rule:
a - a = 0

He also established that:
x/0 = 0, which was later proven incorrect.

Brahmagupta established 20 arithmatical operations including 4 methods for multiplication and 5 methods for reducing rational expressions to a single fraction.

One chapter of the Brahma Sphuta Siddhanta is called the 'Kuttaka', which the later mathematician, Aryabhata, uses for solving the equation:
ax- by = c

Brahmagupta is not only famous for inventing the concept of zero, he is also famous for creating rules to solve simple quadratic equations. He created a formula for finding the area of cyclic equations. In addition, he created methods for solving equations of the second degree.
For example: nx^2 + 1= y^2.

Brahmagupta was the first to use algebra to study astronomy. Some of his contributions to astronomy include: determining methods to find motions and locations of planets, and eclipses of the sun and moon. He observed the world was round, which was true, but also believed wrongfully that the earth was motionless. He died at the age of 70, in the year 668 A.D.

Bibliography:

Barile, Margherita. (1996-2007). Bramagupta. Retrieved Feb. 25, 2008, from
http://www.scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Brahmaguta.html

O'Connor, J.J.(2000, November). Retrieved Feb. 25, 2008, from
http://www.groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Brahmagupta.html

Simon Fraser University Departmant of Mathematics. Brahmagupta.
Retrieved Feb. 25, 2008, from
http://www.math.sfu.ca/histmath/India/7thCenturyAD/brahmagupta.html

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