Isaac Newton
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Born at Woolsthorpe, near Grantham in Lincolnshire, where he attended school, he entered Cambridge University in 1661; he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1667, and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. He remained at the university, lecturing in most years, until 1696

Newton made contributions to all branches of mathematics then studied, but is especially famous for his solutions to the contemporary problems in analytical geometry of drawing tangents to curves (differentiation) and defining areas bounded by curves (integration)

According to the well-known story, it was on seeing an apple fall in his orchard at some time during 1665 or 1666 that Newton conceived that the same force governed the motion of the Moon and the apple. He calculated the force needed to hold the Moon in its orbit, as compared with the force pulling an object to the ground. He also calculated the centripetal force needed to hold a stone in a sling, and the relation between the length of a pendulum and the time of its swing.

In 1689, Newton was elected MP for Cambridge University (1689 - 1690 and 1701 - 1702). In 1696 Newton was appointed warden of the Royal Mint, settling in London.

One of his most famous equations describes the gravitational force between any two objects with mass.

(1)
\begin{align} F _{\rm G}=\frac{Gm_{\rm 1}m_{\rm 2}}{r^2} \end{align}
(2)
\begin{align} {y=\frac{{\mathord{\buildrel{\lower3pt\hbox{$\scriptscriptstyle\rightharpoonup$}} \over x} }}{{p - 3}}} $ \end{align}

where, $F_{\rm G}$ is the gravitational force in newtons
$G$ is the gravitational constant with a value of 6.11 x 10-11 Nm2/kg2
$m_{\rm 1}$ is the mass of object 1 in kilograms
$m_{\rm 2}$ is the mass of object 2 in kilograms
$r$ is the radius of the object

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